Kosharnaya Galina Borisovna, Doctor of sociological sciences, professor, head of sub-department of sociology and human resource management, Penza State University (40 Krasnaya street, Penza, Russia), E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Antonova Ol'ga Gennad'evna, Doctor of sociological sciences, professor, sub-department of history, theory and applied sociology, Saratov State University (120 B. Kazachya street, Saratov, Russia), E-mail: email@example.com
Shchanina Ekaterina Vladimirovna, Doctor of sociological sciences, professor, sub-department of sociology and human resource management, Penza State University (40 Krasnaya street, Penza, Russia), E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Background. The study of the problems of social and labor relations in modern Russian conditions seems quite relevant, since the dynamics of the country's socioeconomic development have a direct impact on the specifics of the transformation of the production system and, as a result, on the state of the labor market and employment. The purpose of the article is to analyze the conditions of employment in the modern Russian region on the basis of empirical research and to identify the grounds for the existence of informal employment.
Materials and methods. The methodology was based on the provisions of sociological theory about the labor market and employment, social policy and social protection of the population. The main methods of empirical research were questionnaire survey and analysis of its results.
Results. Based on the results of a questionnaire survey of participants in social and labor relations engaged in labor activities at enterprises of various fields of activity and industry affiliation (n = 488 people aged 18 to 60 years old, 2019), the three most common conditions for employment are identified: full-time job with an entry in the work book, work under a civil-legal agreement or a contract, work on an oral agreement between the employer and the employee (informal employment). The article presents an analysis of the extent of distribution of the selected conditions of employment, the reasons that prompt people to agree to work on the basis of only an oral agreement, a social portrait of a representative of informal employment.
Conclusions. Studying the problem of informal employment in the regional labor market, the authors have revealed that its share in the whole market is rather low - about 8.6%, however, depending on the field of activity and type of enterprise, its maximum value ranges from 25% to 45%. Among the reasons that motivate people to agree to informal employment are predominantly material ones such as the desire to have higher earnings, to create proper living conditions for their family. Unofficial employers are also mostly driven by economic benefits. The factors of the spread of informal employment are problems with the social protection of the population in the social and labor sphere, as well as the implemented socio-economic policy of the state. In conclusion, the sociotype of an unofficial employee is presented.
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